Artificial intelligence can be defined as follows:
- The study of mental faculties through the use of computational models. CHARNLAK & MCDERMOTT 1985
- The exciting new effort to make computers think…machines with mind, in the full and literal sense. HAUGELAND 1985
- The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people. KURZWEIL 1990
- A field of study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behaviour in terms of computational processes. SCHALKOFF 1990
- The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better. RICH & KNIGHT 2003
- The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act. WINSTON 1992
- The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behaviour. LUGER & STUBBLEFIELD 1993
According to these definitions, computer systems can be classified into the following categories.
- Systems that act like humans
- System that think like humans
- Systems that think rationally
- System that act rationally
1. System that act like humans
The Turing test, proposed by Alan Turing (1950), was designed to provide a satisfactory operational definition of intelligence, Turing defined intelligent behaviour as the ability to achieve human level performance in all cognitive tasks sufficient to fool an interrogator. Roughly, the test he proposed is that a computer should be interrogated by a human via teletype; it will pass the test if the interrogator cannot tell if there is a computer or a human at the other end.